Saturday, April 29, 2023

Mary Whiting Brainerd's Civil War

When the Civil War began, Mary Whiting Brainerd, the recipient of this quilt from her husband's church members, was living in Philadelphia. Thomas Brainerd was pastor of the Third Presbyterian
Church, also called the Pine Street Church.

The church still stands.

Mary Whiting Whiting Brainerd (1806-1889)
 Ivory miniature painted by Anson Dickinson, 1831,
 at the time of her first marriage to Daniel Wadsworth Whiting
who died the following year. A daughter had been still-born.

Second husband Thomas Brainerd (1804-1866)
He was assistant to Lyman Beecher in Cincinnati who introduced
Mary and Thomas, both widowed. They married in 1836.
The portrait is from her memorial book The Life of Rev. Thomas Brainerd

Collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art
“Presented to Mrs. Mary Brainerd by Ladies of the 
Third Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, May 1846.”
109" x 120" with 101 appliqued chintz blocks.

Many of the quilt photos here are by Charlene Bongiorno Stephens and William G. Stephens who have studied this quilt and one associated with Mary's sister Angelica Whiting.

Ten years later church members followed the new fashion in the Philadelphia area, that of making an album quilt of signed blocks for a minister's family. This one was dedicated to Mary alone and the story passed on with the quilt is that friends made it to extend sympathy for the death of a child. The Brainerds had lost a seven-year-old daughter to scarlet fever in January of that year.

Late in life Mary wrote a biography of her husband, a sort
of third person autobiography.

Death certificate for Mary Whiting Brainerd (1839-1846 )
Family Search

The central block includes a butterfly, perhaps symbolic of a short life.

Charles Brainerd died in May, 1849

Three years later the Brainerds lost their youngest. Mary held up. Thomas suffered from some kind
of breakdown that lasted for three years. She recalled him as having a "nervous excitability."

Thomas, on the left in this 1847 photograph, eventually moved to
Montreal, Canada where his descendants live, hence the French caption on
this photo of Mary Whiting Brainerd and children.

Thomas Chalmers Brainerd and Emma Gertrude Brainerd were
 the only two of their five children to survive into adulthood.

Leslie's Illustrated print of John Brown's raid on a federal armory in 
Harper's Ferry, November, 1859

By 1859 sectional divisions intruded on the Brainerd's peaceful world. Radical activist John Brown was easily captured and soon hung for his anti-slavery insurrection. In her husband's post-mortem biography Mary Brainerd gives us a glimpse of herself and her perspective on Brown.

She'd written an anonymous article for the local American Presbyterian periodical after the execution in early December, 1859, associating Brown with God and exciting the pro-slavery factions in the church..

Daniel Clay Houghton (1815-1860)

Editor Daniel Clay Houghton was unhappy with reaction to her association of Brown and the deity and promptly visited the Brainerds to see if Thomas could get Mary and the newspaper out of a "scrape" (whether she wanted out or not.) Eventually Houghton realized Mary's words increased his subscription list.

Thomas Chalmers Brainerd (1837-1910)

Once war was declared the Brainerd's only surviving son Thomas in his mid 20s, enlisted as a surgeon, serving in hospitals in Washington, Philadelphia and Charleston, South Carolina. 

Thomas and bride Mari Laflin Boies in 1865

Children Thomas and Emma married a brother and sister. Emma's husband was Henry Martyn Boies of Saugerties, New York, her brother's Yale classmate whom she wed at the war's beginning. Thomas married Mari Boies when he returned.

The elder Mary & Thomas Brainerd were instrumental in establishing the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon in May, 1861. The saloon offering beverages (non-alcoholic beverages you can be sure) and meals to soldiers and sailors passing through the city became a model for similar free restaurants.

Free Library of Philadelphia Collection
See more at

Having made it through the war without any personal loss the Brainerds suffered a terrible blow in August, 1866, when Mary and her husband visited daughter Emma, pregnant with her third child in Scranton, Pennsylvania. They were residents of Emma's home when her two children Carrington and Mary died of dysentery. Grandfather Thomas suffered a stroke of "apoplexy" and died there two weeks after his grandchildren. Henry Whiting Boies was born the following February. And then Emma died November 1, 1868.

Mary cared for her grandson Henry; his father remarried and she spent her last years with Thomas's family in Montreal, dying there in 1889. She brought her album quilt to Canada leaving it to a granddaughter. In a memoir of his family grandson Dwight Brainerd  described it:
"An interesting record of the place and times, my sister particularly cherishes a bed-quilt of which each parishioner worked a little square, autographing it with indelible ink."
Descendants Ian and Marran Ogilvie donated the quilt to the Philadelphia Museum of Art in memory of the Brainerd/Ogilvie Family of Montreal in 2006.

Did "each parishioner work a little square?" or did they buy exquisitely appliqued images from professional seamstresses? The Stephenses and I are intrigued by the idea of purchased blocks from skilled needlewomen. The dahlia bouquet in lower right is one of 4 blocks cut from the same chintz in Mary's quilt. Nearly 30 other quilts contain similar dahlia bouquets.
See a post on the dahlia chintz here:

The Museum has updated their caption due to the Stephens's research:
"The quilt is similar to others made by religious congregations in Philadelphia during the 1840s; many use identical English floral chintz fabrics, which may indicate that precut fabric could be purchased for use as appliqu├ęs. In 1842, the ladies had presented a nearly identical quilt (now in the collection of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art) to the Reverend George S. Boardman, who also preached at the church, suggesting that each church developed a distinctive style of quilt design."

Mary spent her later years writing her husband's biography, funding a graveyard monument to him and visiting Philadelphia friends.
"As the wife of a distinguished clergyman, Grandmother possessed hosts of friends. Whenever she revisited the Quaker City, she would make a round through its business center, gate-crashing executive doors, and always welcome."  Dwight Brainerd

The silver urn, another common image in the early chintz albums, is
the central block in the Boardman quilt.

Do read Charlene Bongiorno & William G. Stephens's articles on album quilts including Mary Brainerd's in the newsletter of The Old Pine Conservancy:

The same year Mary's sister Angelica Whiting worked on a gift quilt while a patient at the Vermont Asylum for the Insane. 

Charlene Bongiorno Stephens and William G. Stephens, “Nothing Thou Love Be Lost or Die,” Uncoverings: The Research Papers of the American Quilt Study Group (volume 41, 2020). Read a summary at this link: (Scroll down to the bottom.)  

And see their article in Blanket Statements, the American Quilt Study Group's newsletter (#147) on a related Philadelphia album with the popular dahlia print and the clues to professional seamstresses. A post:

More on Mary Whiting Brainerd:

The Canadian article in French with the picture of Mary and her two children:

Mary's biography of her husband:

Mary's FindaGrave file:

And her grandson's 1948 family biography Ancestry of Thomas Chalmers Brainerd:

Wednesday, April 26, 2023

Herbarium #2 White Oak for Jane Loring Gray


Herbarium Block #2
White Oak for botanist Jane Loring Gray by Becky Collis 

Jane Lathrop Loring Gray (1821-1909) botanizing in Colorado in the 1870s,
a little Photoshopping on a picture by William Henry Jackson

Jane Loring's mother Anna Brace Loring who died when Jane was 15 was Sarah Pierce's niece. See last month's post on Block #1 about the Litchfield Female Academy:   

Jane never attended the Pierce's school but did spend time visiting her great Aunts and Uncle John Pierce Brace in Litchfield, Connecticut. Uncle John who taught botany to the Litchfield girls must have had quite an influence as Jane became a life-long botanizer. 

White Oak by Denniele Bohannon

Asa Gray  (1810-1888) in 1841

In her early 20s Jane found Bostonians "lecture mad" and joined in, attending a talk on botany in 1842 at the Lowell Institute by Asa Gray, a new professor of Natural History at Harvard. They shared a love of science and cataloguing and after a 5-year courtship became engaged.

A good botanist, Jane labeled everything.

"I suppose she would not be called handsome, but she has a face beaming with good temper and full of intelligence... Possesses all the usual accomplishments of persons in her station, but is most remarkable for a well-cultivated mind, and for her excellent practical powers." Asa Gray on his affianced.

Jane wrote to her Litchfield Aunt Mary about Asa. Jane didn't think he was that good looking either but, "He is quite distinguished as a botanist; & is held in very high esteem by all his friends & acquaintances."

White Oak by Barbara Brackman

The Grays' house on the left, photographed in the 1890s

They married in May, 1848 and Jane became partner to one of the world's leading botanists. Without children she served as his librarian, fundraiser and housekeeper of the Harvard Botanic Garden in which they lived. Cambridge became the American center of botanizing.

In June, 1861, Benjamin Brown French and his brother "walked all about the town after tea and viewed the magnificent residences. Cambridge is a lovely place."

Members of The Banks Brigade in 1863

At the beginning of the Civil War Jane invited 16 young ladies over to meet Asa's visiting niece 17-year-old Julia Bragg and to sew clothing, medical supplies and bedding for soldiers. The Cambridge girls vowed to meet weekly during the War. Read a post on the Banks Brigade soldiers' aid society (later The Bee) at this post:

Ad 1858

The Grays' books became standard text books for teaching botany in the 1850s. Although she is rarely given unseemly credit, Jane did acknowledge writing portions and certainly acting as his administrative assistant.

White Oak by Becky Brown

The Block

Three of the eight similar quilts have this simple leaf block in the same coloring, although
the Shelburne Museum's, which has the embroidered plant names, does
not include it. So we have to guess at a name.

We might guess the leaf is Quercus alba or the White Oak, a tree quite common in the eastern half of the United States.

Asa Gray (and Jane) kept their own Herbarium cataloguing 200,000 plants. Still at Harvard.

The White Oak is a simple version of a common 4-way arrangement of vegetation.

Robyn Gragg turned everything into a pentagon for her

Did the Grays influence the women who made our similar Herbarium quilts?

Girls did not go to Harvard, so would not have had Asa Gray for a teacher, but women attended lectures and visited the campus garden. Perhaps the unknown, influential sewing/botany teacher who seems to have directed our quilts had a copy or two of the Gray textbooks.

Read more about Jane Loring Gray here:

From her husband's obituary:
"For 40 years he has planted the seeds and borne almost single-handed the burden of the botanical harvest. It would be difficult to point to any other scientific man, with the single exception of Charles Darwin, who has in his own department of learning so entirely impressed himself upon the intellectual growth of a nation."

Becky Collis's got her Herbarium top done. Here's the lower right
corner with Blocks 1 & 2. That green is hard to capture on my computer.


Saturday, April 22, 2023

Quilts in a Philadelphia Hospital


Free Library Company of Philadelphia collection

Doctor, patients and a visiting woman in what was known
as the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon & Hospital
in Philadelphia during the Civil War.

The three visible beds seem to be covered with patchwork quilts.

Free Library Company of Philadelphia collection

The saloon with it's eagle sculpture did not serve alcoholic
beverages but rather prepared meals and refreshments for
soldiers and sailors moving through Philadelphia.

Plenty of festive and patriotic decorations if no comfortable chairs.

Was the hospital store room full of Sanitary Commission quilts?
The artist here might have upgraded the bedding to appear as if
everybody had a chintz medallion.

See more interior shots from the Free Library Company of Philadelphia's collection
at this link: